Archive for reasons for religion
I want to take some time to look at the existential condition of the person who believes in God. I want to talk about how we humans construct our moral belief system, and why this makes us particularly disposed to religion. What is at stake for the believer? What needs does a belief in God serve? I also have to say before I start that this says nothing about the truth of any particular religion. I myself believe that God exists, and I have my own understanding of how He and the world operate. I recognize, however, that these beliefs give me a great deal of emotional security and comfort. They serve a lot of needs for me and help me organize my world. I want to examine how this happens, and how it may happen similarly for other people.
The Human Belief Construct
People generally have intuitive responses to emotional dilemmas and institute logical frameworks as post hoc justifications for these responses. I argue that there is a particular anxiety or need for an organized and secure world which directs particular individuals’ emotional moral reasoning toward the acceptance of God or religion. Before discussing that, though, I should describe why it may be that people construct their beliefs in this particular way.
Freud’s notion of primary and secondary process thinking is useful in explaining this construction. It also provides a good framework for examining religious belief. To put it simply, secondary process thinking is characterized by logic and definition, while primary process thinking is characterized by emotion and vagueness. Secondary process thinking is what we are familiar with, what we can detect through self-examination. We know we engage in reasoning and deliberation, and we can follow these processes within ourselves. Primary process thinking, on the other hand, is largely conducted unconsciously. It does not abide by rules of logic, nor does it follow a clearly identifiable pattern. Stuart Younger explains:
“Primary-process thinking is carried out more through pictorial, concrete images; representation by allusion or analogy is frequent; and a part of an object may be used to stand for the whole. Similarities are not distinguished from identities, and mutually contradictory ideas can coexist peacefully. Primary-process thinking is a magical type of thinking. Not only may wish be equated with deed and fantasy with action, but the perpetrator of a crime or misdeed will be punished with the same injury he or she inflicted.”
There is neurological evidence to support this model as well. Neurologically speaking, human reasoning is divided into levels. Moral issues are sorted through these levels depending upon whether they elicit an emotional or reasoned response from the brain. When faced with emotional problems, individuals respond instinctively. They do not respond based upon reasoning. Different centers of the brain are responsible for different types of reasoning, and therefore, result in different answers to the same normative questions. Joshua Greene argues that impersonal moral dilemmas elicit a response from the prefrontal cortex, the part of the brain responsible for logic and cognitive reasoning, hence yielding to utilitarian ethics. The more personal or emotionally targeted dilemmas elicit a response from an emotional center of the brain, especially when these dilemmas present conflicts of deontological principles, or conflicts of duties. Using fMRIs to analyze this brain response, Greene and the members of his cognition lab currently maintain the validity of their hypothesis.
Based upon their observations, Greene and his team argue that, “Moral dilemmas vary systematically in the extent to which they engage emotional processing and that these variations in emotional engagement influence moral judgment.” Moral dilemmas, despite being based upon the same moral principles, engage the brain in different ways. Different questions result in varying amounts of emotional response from the brain. As a result, a human being’s moral judgment is affected.
I argue that religions have a unique ability to target primary process thinking in human beings. God focuses upon particular issues which are primarily relevant to people in an emotional rather than logical sense. Most examples of religious thought and discourse show examples of primary-process thinking, particularly those examples mentioned by Youngner. The important thing to note is that the primary process is the motivation behind the reasoning which is conducted under the auspices of the secondary process, and it is the motivation behind the actions which occur as a result. Robert Cooper explains:
“Consciousness thus appears as a moving force that advances on the unconscious, from which it gets its motive power. The secondary thinking of consciousness detects the vagueness and inﬁnity of the unconscious primary process as ‘something missing’ and seeks to ﬁll the gap by translating it into some kind of meaningful form, but since the gap always recedes, it denies consciousness its full presence in space and time while simultaneously creating consciousness and keeping it continually alive.”
This moral construction makes people particularly susceptible to belief in God and religion. Religious ideology is ripe with material which targets primary-process thinking faculties. A belief in God serves to emotionally develop and construct a perspective on the world for the believer. Now, it is important to identify precisely what issues are being addressed by faith.
What’s at Stake with Faith?
In order to properly understand the believer, it is important to ask precisely what is at stake for a human being when he/she believes in God. Well, it may be that the condition of existing as beings in the world drives us to devise methods of organizing it so that we do not lose ourselves in it. We all have a primary desire for ontological security. A belief in God helps to serve this organizational function. In this way, it does not have an epistemic foundation, but rather, it is an epistemic foundation which fastens itself to a person to order help organize their world.
It is important to identify the tools which religious beliefs use to target this organizational need. A belief in God, after all, is not a reasoned enterprise. Faith is not brought forward by a logical process or a concentration of will. Rather, it is elicited through the construction of a world. Frankl explains, equating laughter to faith, “If you want anyone to laugh you have to provide him with a reason, e.g. you have to tell him a joke.” Similarly, if one is to belive in God, he/she must be provided with a reason, conscious or unconscious. Religious belief systems have an ability to target deeply relevant emotional issues for any human being through the use of pervasive cultural elements. This is to say that a belief in God serves to help organize the chaos of the primary-process in a number of ways, using common elements of a person’s existence as a functional being.
The first of these is the use of language and symbols. Religions use symbols to define the acting forces in the world, and they develop organizational systems for the universe based on their beliefs. A brief examination of scriptural language shows its incredibly emotional nature. Religious language appeals to human emotions by framing often counterintuitive ideas in the forms of duties and obligations. The important thing to note is that this language serves an organizational function. It answer questions about what one should do and how one should act toward others. It helps one understand, emotionally at least, how to organize the different moral questions which arise throughout one’s life. The language helps to organize the world which is shaped by the belief.
The example of ritual perhaps better illustrates precisely how belief in God targets the primary process. Nearly all religious systems contain a set of rituals or practices. The reasons for particular rituals, blood sacrifices being a good example, are often inexplicable or troubling. The answer given for why these rituals are conducted is often that it is what God, or whomever, would want. The belief which motivates such action is not reasoned. Rather, it is an emotional enterprise. Patton explains, “The Divine influences the human realm and expresses itself by generating human religious practices.” It is evident that there is a primary-process function which is motivating secondary-process reasoning and consequent action in religious constructs. Yet again, however, the important thing to note is that these rituals serve an organizational function. They codify and reify the beliefs upon which they are based. Rituals make the beliefs tangible, and in so doing, legitimize them.
Up until this point, I have said that religious systems provide material for the primary-process faculties to feed on, but now I need to be more incisive and ask another question. What are the factors which allow religion to permeate so deeply into a person?
The Potential Motivations for a Belief in God
There is variety of reasons which may explain why people believe in God. Before beginning to talk about them, though, it is important to note that religious belief is not homogenous. One person’s motivations may be radically different from another’s. Although, I argue that they all share one common element; they all serve an emotional organizational function.
The first reason I will examine is the desire for parental affection. Weston LaBarre argues that a child’s emotional condition as a result of his/her experience with his/her parents is at the heart of the beginning of religion. As evidence for this, La Barre utilizes the fact that we attribute maternal and paternal characteristics to God. He explains, “At times God has traits of the mother; but her psychic presence is more often discernible […] in the para-system magic. […] God most often is the psychic ghost of the father – eternal as his imago is in the unconscious mind.” La Barre contends that people’s experiences with their parents and family inform their development of and adherence to particular systems. He argues, “At the base of every religion is the familial experience, and all religions consequently contain some basic oedipal story in their myths.” It is no secret that religions are typified by parental themes. However, it is important to realize that these themes exist in the context of an organized relationship. Because God does not operate in a fashion similar to one’s parents, one can constantly receive desired love from Him and not have to reconcile contradictory actions, at least not actions which are immediately perceivable. A belief in God allows for the existence of a closed system in which one can constantly have the illusion of received affection. The relationship becomes simple, framed in, “if I do this I will be loved” terms. This desire seems to make sense because of the great weight of love. It may be, “the ultimate and highest goal to which [one] can aspire.”
The next potential motivation for religion may be a desire for purpose and aversion of suffering. People often turn to God, in one fashion or another, in order to cling to the hope for a better future because they are currently suffering. This sort of answer for one’s suffering relies on the acceptance that one’s purpose may be beyond comprehension, and that there is a higher power which has decided it. Frankl uses the examples of concentration camp victims to describe this dynamic, “In spite of all the enforced physical and mental primitiveness of the life in a concentration camp, it was possible for spiritual life to deepen. [...] They were able to retreat from their terrible surroundings to a life of inner riches and spiritual freedom.” Again, though, this search for alleviation and purpose exists in the form of an organized relationship. When it comes to a belief in God, it becomes divorced from the chaotic and uncertain context in which it previously existed. Rather, it gives one the image of something toward which to aspire, and instructions on how to aspire toward it. Frankl explains that religiousness should “be understood as a latent relation to transcendence inherent in man. If one prefers, he might conceive of this relation in terms of a relationship between the immanent self and a transcendent thou.” Through a relationship with God, one can formulate an ideal existence, separate from the suffering of the current, and strive toward it.
A final motivation I choose to examine is the fear of death. People may attach themselves to a belief in God in order to avert a fear or anxiety about their own mortality. Death anxiety, or more aptly a fear of any sort of annihilation, may be a fundamental part of our condition, and this may lead us to turn toward religion and God. Religion often serves the function of averting the awareness of death, and all religions contain some examination of it. This is particularly evident when religious societies are under attack, as interpretations have usually changed to accommodate the need to defend against the attack. This becomes more strikingly clear in the case of the religious terrorist who conducts a suicide bombing. The fear of death needs to be overcome in this situation, or replaced with something of greater worth. This aversion of a fear of death too, however, operates in the context of an organized relationship with God. People’s obligations and duties are outlined distinctly. “If I do this, I will be rewarded when I die.”
Before continuing, I most note an important point; these motivations are not mutually exclusive. They are definitely linked with one another, depend upon one another, and feed upon one another. A person who feels love may be using that love to feel immortal, or a person who seeks to transcend suffering may be doing it through the formulation of an ideal afterlife which addresses the fear of death. These motivations, and several others, exist dynamically in the primary process of the human being.
The Existential Condition of the Believer
We now arrive at the whole question; what is the existential condition of the person who believes in God? I outline this condition in three components, the three components which I have elaborated upon throughout my discussion. The first of these is the primary-process response mechanism to moral problems. People respond to moral questions emotionally and institute post-hoc rationalizations to justify these responses. This is the process by which beliefs are constructed. The next component is the need for organization to this primary process. The primary process thinking faculties of a person exist in a chaotic riddled mess which seeks answers and organization. We use a variety of mechanisms like language and rituals to serve this need to organize and develop an ontologically secure world devoid of ambiguity and uncertainty. The third and final component is the belief itself which uses these mechanisms to serve the need. A belief in God, or religion, is the epistemic foundation which develops the world of the believer. Things are seen and interpreted through the lens of a belief in God. It is a strictly emotional enterprise, motivated by intuitive moral responses, but it addresses the most relevant fundamental emotional anxieties of a human being and seeks to avert them through organizing an otherwise chaotic universe. The self is safe and immortal in the ontologically secure world constructed through a belief in God.
I hope that this discussion has gotten you thinking more deeply about religious beliefs and what people put on the line when they construct their beliefs. People of all beliefs and faiths, even atheists, are subject to their emotional drives. When we don’t understand these drives, communication becomes difficult, and we tend to judge quickly and harshly. A better understanding is the first step to opening the door for harmonious coexistence.
 Youngner, Stuart. “Some Must Die.” Zygon 38, no. 3 (2003). Younger’s summary is drawn from Brenner, Charles. Elementary Textbook of Psychoanalysis. New York. International Universities Press. 1973. I chose Youngner’s summary analysis because it does a particularly good job of highlighting many factors in primary-process thinking which are characteristics of religious thought and discourse. The idea of an “eye for an eye” is explicitly mentioned, along with the use of representation through analogy and the coexistence of contradictory ideas.
 Greene, Joshua. “An fMRI Investigation of Emotional Engagement in Moral Judgment .” Science 293(2001): 2105-2108. Print.
 Cooper, Robert. “Primary and Secondary Thinking in Social Theory.” Journal of Classic Sociology 3, no. 2 (2033): 153
 Laing, R.D. The Divided Self: An Existential Study in Sanity and Madness. Pelican. 1965. P. 41-43
 Frankl,Viktor. Man’s Search for Meaning. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992. p. 162
 Paden,William E.. Religious Worlds. 1 ed. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988. pp. 53-54
 Ibid. p. 56
 Patton,Kimberley C. Religion of the Gods Ritual, Paradox, and Reflexivity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. pp. 239
 La Barre,Weston. The Ghost Dance. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press, 1970. p. 12
 Ibid. 7 p. 58
 Ibid. p. 52 – 59
 Ibid. p. 56
 Frankl, Viktor. The Unconscious God: Psychotherapy and Theology. New York. 1975. p. 61
 Becker, Ernest. The Denial of Death. New York: The Free Press, 1975.
 McTernan, Oliver. Violence in God’s Name. New York. Orbis Publishing. 2003. Ch. 3
 Khosrokhavar, Farhad. Suicide Bombers Allah’s New Martyrs. London: Pluto Press. 2005. chapter 1